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Istanbul Agreement 1999

Only Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine have ratified the adaptation agreement, although Ukraine has not yet tabled its ratification instrument. All 21 NATO members maintained their opposition to the adapted treaty until Russia withdrew from Moldova and Georgia, including the Transdnestr region of Moldova and the Gudauta military base in the Georgian separatist region of Abkhazia. Russia opposed the link and called Istanbul`s commitments “political commitments” and called on states to ratify the adapted treaty. On 10 June, 45 countries participated in an informal meeting of foreign ministry experts in Berlin on the theme “The Future of Conventional Arms Control in Europe”. During his visit to Moscow, German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier called on the parties concerned to agree on the adapted treaty. With the entry into force of its charter on 1 May 1999, BSEC acquired the international legal personality and was transformed into a full-fledged regional economic organisation, the organisation of economic cooperation in the Black Sea region. On 19 November, at the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) summit in Istanbul, Turkey, the parties to the CFE signed the `adaptation agreement`. The Adaptation Agreement attempted to revise the CFE Treaty to take account of events that have changed Europe`s geopolitical landscape. Instead of the borders of bulk and zone weapons, they have been replaced by national and territorial ceilings. The adapted agreement also provided for an accession clause to enable NATO member countries, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Slovenia, to obtain legal means to join the treaty. The adapted treaty will enter into force if all 30 states parties ratify the agreement. The second treaty review conference was held in Vienna from 28 May to 1 June 2001. Participants reaffirmed the treaty`s central role in European security and called on Russia to respect the flank aspects of the treaty and its commitments under the final act of the 1999 CFE.

in view of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966), the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW, 1979) and its Optional Protocol (1999), as well as General Recommendation No. 1999.

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